Biomass, Wind, Solar, Hydroelectric, geothermal, and other energy sources

The following are the major renewable energy sources:

Solar- Solar energy is heat energy that comes from the sun.  There are different types of solar energy passive solar and active solar. The difference is how the energy is distributed or converted to solar power. How the power is harnessed is either using photovoltaic systems, concentrated solar power and solar water heating. Solar energy is great if you need electricity. Experts say that if we use more solar energy then we can cut down on air pollution and global warming. This will also make prices for fossil fuels decrease because there will not be a huge need for them. The efficiency might not be great (about 20%) the solar cells was a great discovery. Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) gets mirrors and lenses to make sunlight into a beam and concentrate it in one area. They are using the beam to heat a liquid. That is then used for power generation or energy storage. Solar energy is created when photovoltaic cells convert sunlight into direct current electricity through a solar panel throughout the day, then a device called an inverter, converts the direct current electricity into alternating current electricity, which is used in most appliances/machines.

Wind- Using wind turbines or sails and the wind to make mechanical or electrical energy. There are no greenhouse gas emissions. Wind farms are fields with wind turbines. Those wind turbines are connected to a electric power transmission network. Wind farms can also be in the water and they are not as much of an eye sore. But to maintain these turbines it cost a lot of money because they are in the ocean. But the wind out in the ocean is stronger and steadier. Sense you can't always know that there will be a steady wind so usually areas that use wind energy also use other types of energy. Hydroelectricity is usually paired with wind electricity.

Hydroelectric- electricity generated by hydropower or hydroelectric energy is created as a turbine is turned by falling water under the force of gravity. The turbine is connected to a metal pole that was connected to a generator that produces energy. Most turbines are located in dams that separate large rivers. One of the most popular dams, is the Hoover Dam.

Biomass- Biomass is an energy formed when inside a biomass power plant biomass or organic matter used as a fuel, especially in a power station for the generation of electricity is burned in steam, and water boilers. Biomass is burned very similar to oil or natural gas. Biomass typically leads to more than 80% CO2 emission reductions. The top three materials used in biomass energy, are forest products, waste, and residual products, and energy crops.

Hydrogen-  Hydrogen energy is a zero-emission fuel when burned with oxygen, and it’s when hydrogen is separated from other particles in matter. There are two different ways to extract hydrogen from matter; electrolysis or a steam-methane reforming process. In electrolysis, an electric current is run through water to separate the hydrogen from the oxygen in the water. In a steam-methane reforming process, it directly extracts hydrogen from methane, although this does cause some greenhouse gases to be released. Once the hydrogen is extracted, it acts as a carrier for electricity, which can then be used to run a combustion engine, they can be burned for heat and energy, or made into larger “fuel cells.” This usually powers rockets, cars, boats, and airplanes.

Tides- In the ocean Special buoys, turbines, and other technologies can capture the power of waves and tides and convert it into clean, pollution-free electricity. The United States receives 2,100 terawatt-hours of incident wave energy along its coastlines each year. Just one quarter of this could produce as much energy as the entire U.S. hydropower system. There are three main types of wave energy technologies. One type uses floats, buoys, or pitching devices to generate electricity using the rise and fall of ocean waves to drive hydraulic pumps or a mechanical device that converts mechanical power into hydraulic energy. It generates flow with enough power to overcome pressure induced by the load.. A second type uses oscillating water column (OWC)devices to generate electricity at the shore using the rise and fall of water within a cylindrical shaft. The rising water drives air out of the top of the shaft, powering an air-driven turbine. Third, a tapered channel, or overtopping device can be located either on or offshore. They concentrate waves and drive them into an elevated reservoir, where power is then generated using hydropower turbines as the water is released. The vast majority of recently proposed wave energy projects would use offshore floats, buoys or pitching devices.

Geothermic- Geothermic energy comes from the ground and is clean and maintainable. Resources of geothermal energy range from the shallow ground to hot water and hot rock found a few miles beneath the Earth’s surface, and down deeper into the intensely high temperatures of molten rock/magma. Almost everywhere, the shallow ground or higher 10 feet of the Earth's surface preserves a nearly consistent temperature between 50° and 60°F (10° and 16°C). Geothermal heat pumps can use this resource to heat and cool buildings. In the winter, the heat pump takes heat from the heat exchanger and pumps it into the indoor air delivery system. In the summer, the process is inverted, and the heat pump moves heat from the indoor air into the heat exchanger. The heat that was taken from the inside air during the summer can also be used to administer a free source of hot water. In the US, most of the geothermal energy reservoirs, are located more in the Western states, like Alaska and Hawaii. Wells can be driven into underground reservoirs for the generation of electricity. Some geothermal power plants use the steam from a reservoir to power a turbine/generator, while others use the hot water to boil a working liquid that vaporizes,  then moves a turbine. Hot water closer to the surface of Earth can be used directly for heat. Direct-use operations include heating buildings, growing plants in greenhouses, drying crops, heating water at fish farms, and several industrial processes such as pasteurizing milk.

Hydrogen Fusion- Happens when two nuclei come to together at very fast speed. The protons in an atom are repelling each other but there is so much force that they stick together. A new force that cancels out the repulsion over short-range is now in action. All elements have to have a great force to fuse because of the charged particles i in the atom. Usually it is lighter elements that are fusible. Because the dense elements tend to absorb the energy instead of making it.This is the process that stars go through. Fusion reactions release more energy than fissions. Each reaction between atoms releases more energy in the impact.

Fuel Cells- A fuel cell is an instrument, that creates electricity by creating a chemical reaction between two electrodes, the anode and the cathode, inside of the fuel cell. this reaction is fueled by mainly hydrogen, but some oxygen. Fuel cells produce very little byproducts, mainly water. Direct current electricity, in the main type of electricity created by this process. They are very expensive to create, and are not very efficient either,that is why they are not very common.

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